Chapter 5: Occupations

This chapter provides information about occupations, mostly from the 1870s to the early 1900s. Most of the official recorded information here is of men’s occupations, as women’s labours for the most part were informal and conducted in the homes. At this time the village had 5-600 people. While many were occupied as farmers, occupations at this time centred around the ocean, with men building and captaining ships, logging the woods for shipbuilding material and keeping the harbour safe for ships.

  • 1871: 515 people, 89 inhabited homes
  • 1891: 597 people, 111 inhabited homes (84 Knowltons and 200 Morrises – 48% of the population was either a Knowlton or a Morris)
  • 1921: 576 people, 167 inhabited homes

(See Early Settlers for more information about population)

A shipyard in Port Greville around 1895

What follows are the names and occupations of the people listed in the 1871, 1891 and 1921 census. This will enable you to see, if unaware, what occupations your distant relatives were involved in.

1871 census

Blacksmith

Blenkhorn, Amos
Clark, Edward
Knowlton, Amos

Boot and Shoe Maker
Blenkhorn, William E.
Caulker

Morris, Nathaniel

Cooper

Lovely, Morris

Farmer

Barteaux, David
Barteaux, Walter
Brown, Benjamin
Brown, Harris
Dewis, Frederick
Dewis, Joshua
Duff, Francis
Duff, Nathan
Knowlton, George
Knowlton, Jacob
Knowlton, James D.
Knowlton, John Sr.
Knowlton, Silas
Knowlton, William Jr.
Knowlton, Asa
Loomer, John
Lunn, Joseph
Mills, Robert
Mills, William
Morris, Benjamin
Morris, Caleb
Morris, Charles E.
Morris, Enoch
Morris, Erastus
Morris, George H.
Morris, George R.
Morris, Jesse K.
Morris, John K.
Morris, John W.
Morris, Joshua
Morris, Randolph
Morris, Samuel
Morris, Silas
Morris, Thomas L.
Morris, William
Reid, William
Reid, Edmund
Spicer, John W.
Spicer, Robert W.
Ward, Charles B.
Ward, Charles J.
Ward, James

Joiner
Berry, Rufus
Beaty, Henry
Elliott, Henry
Livingston, George
Livingston, Robert
McLellan, Archibald
Morwick, Samuel
Labourer

Lovely, Edward
Milberry, J. William
Milberry, William H.
Stewart, Charles

Mariner

Barteaux, Norman
Deming, Tristham
Dunn, Andrew
Knowlton, Charles T.
Knowlton, James A.
Knowlton, John W.
Knowlton, Daniel
Knowlton, Stephen
Milberry, Elias
Mills, Daniel
Morris, Albert
Morris, George L.
Morris, Leander
Morris, Lutheran
Morris, Thomas
Reid, George Judson
Robarts, Caleb
Suthergreen, Wesley
Winters, Edward
Winters, William

Merchant
Bigelow, William
Morris, Nathan
Morris, George A.
Minister

Day, George F.

Postmaster

Morris, George A.

Seaman

Kelly, John
Loomer, David
Milberry, David
Blenkhorn, James

Seamstress

Coffill, Ellen

Ship Captain
Blenkhorn, Edward
Crane, James
Dewis, Robert
Knowlton, Abraham
Knowlton, Lewis
Knowlton, William
Morris, Henry
Morris, William W.
Robarts, John S.
Smith, William
Ship Carpenter

Cameron, Hugh
Collins, Charles
Copp, Henry
Elliott, John
Knowlton, Alfred
Knowlton, Asa
Knowlton, George T.
Knowlton, James W.
Knowlton, Lewis
Lank, Edward
Livingston, Thomas
Loomer, Gideon
Morris, Henry
Morris, Lutheran
Morris, Robert M.
Morris, Henry
Reid, James
Smith, Sidney
Suthergreen, Seymore
Turple, William
Weaver, Perry

Shipwright

Dewis, Joshua
Kelly, Timothy
Moore, William
Suthergreen, John E.

Teacher

Hannah, Robert
Keith, Abram C.
McCabe, James
Robarts, Charles S.
Suthergreen, Barbara

Trader

Hill, George

1891 census

Blacksmith
Clark, William
Mclaughlin, Robert
Coachman

Elliott, Beamish

Dress Maker

Berry, Edith
Knowlton, Sarah
Duff, Emily

Farmer
Barkhouse, Isaac
Barteaux, Walter
Cameron, Joshua
Canning, Stephen
Dewis, Fred
Dewis, Joshua
Duff, Nathan
Dunkerton, Wentworth
Jenks, Corey
Kelly, Wilder
Knowlton, Amos
Knowlton, George
Knowlton, James
Knowlton, John
Knowlton, Judson
Knowlton, Lewis
Knowlton, William
Milberry, David
Mills, Randolph
Mills, William
Loomer, Avery
Loomer, David
Loomer, George
Mclellan, Archibald
Moore, Edward
Morris, Burton
Morris, Caleb
Morris, Charles
Morris, Edson
Morris, Enoch
Morris, Erastus
Morris, George
Morris, Samuel
Morris, Silas
Morris, William
Reid, Edmund
Reid, William
Spicer, John
Spicer, Robert
Suthergreen, John
Ward, James
Ward, Morton
Fire Insurance Agent

Morris, Curtis

Joiner

Knowlton, Leslie
McLellan, Henry

Labourer

Barteaux, Norman
Stuart, Charles
Newcomb, Judson

Lighthouse Keeper
Livingston, George
Kirkpatrick, James
McKay, Alexander
Lumberman

McCabe, Clarence
Elderkin, Albert
Elderkin, William

Master Mariner

Dewis, Robert

Merchant

Atkinson, Albert
Elliott, Amos
Elliott, Henry
Morris, Robert
Spencer, Lucinda
Turple, John

Millman

McCabe, Fred
Milbury, William

Minister
Appleby, Jabez
Porter, Douglas
Postmaster

McCabe, Herbert

Seaman

Barteaux, Frederick
Berry, Leonard
Collins, James
Collins, William Miles
Knowlton, Asher
Knowlton, Mark
Knowlton, Perry
Livingston, John
Milberry, James
Mills, Fred
Mills, William
Smith, Walter Austin
Smith, William T.

Servant

Morrison, Annie
Morris, Albina

Ship Captain

Collins, Franklin
Collins, Judson
Crane, James
Crane, John
Hatfield, Benjamin
Knowlton, Bryson
Knowlton, Eli
Knowlton, Stephen
Moore, Havelock
Morris, Ephram
Morris, John
Morris, Oscar
Morris, Bradford
Morris, Leander
Morris, Randall
Morris, Wilson
Robarts, John S.
Sheridan, Samuel
Suthergreen, Seymore
Webster, James

Ship Carpenter
Atkinson, James
Ayer, Thomas
Barteaux, Emerson
Bennett, Henry
Berry, Frank
Berry, Martin
Berry, Rufus
Brown, Harris
Collins, Charles
Elliott, Clarence
Elliott, Marvin
Elliott, William
Hatfield, Benjamin
Kearns, Matthew
Kelly, Charles
Kelly, John
Knowlton, Alfred
Knowlton, Asa
Knowlton, Gilmore
Knowlton, James
McInnis, Daniel
McNeil, Alfred
Milbury, George
Mills, William
Moore, Alexander
Moore, Merritt
Morris, Chesley
Morris, Edward
Morris, Emilus
Morris, Fred
Morris, James
Morris, James
Morris, Lutheran
Smith, Fred
Smith, Lawson
Smith, Wilson
Turple, William
Shipwright
Dewis, Joshua
Morris, George
Moore, William
Smith, Sidney
Shoe Maker

Blenkhorn, Edward

Spar Maker

Tibbets, Berry

Teacher

Clarke, Alexander

1921 census

Blacksmith

DeWolf, Isaac

Carpenter

Barteaux, Emerson
Knowlton, Robert
Lunn, Ashley
Lunn, Silas
Morris, LaMont
Vickery, Frank

Farmer

Barkhouse, Alston
Barkhouse, Daniel
Blenkhorn, Albert
Blenkhorn, Earl
Cameron, Joshua
Canning, Stephen
Canning, Wintfield
Cole, Stewart
Collins, Reid
Dewis, Elmo
Dewis, Frederick
Dunkerton, Wentworth
Elliott, Beamish
Fillmore, Thomas
Fillmore, Walter
Kelly, Charles
Knowlton, Arlie
Knowlton, Bernley
Knowlton, Carl
Knowlton, Delile
Knowlton, Edson
Knowlton, Herbert
Knowlton, James
Knowlton. Judson
Lunn, Albert
MacAleese, Stuart
Milberry, Norman
Milberry, Robert
Mills, Carl
Moore, Wordlow
Morris, Averitt
Morris, Burton
Morris, Conrad
Morris, Edson
Morris, Frederick
Morris, Harvey
Morris, James
Morris, Kenneth
Morris, Mitchell
Morris, Pharez
Morris, Weldon
Morris, William

Fisherman

James, Eli

Labourer

Barteaux, Charles
Cole, Ralph
DeWitt, Earl
Knowlton, William
Moore, Edward
Morris, Lorne
Morris, Stewart
Morris, Walter
Morris, Wylie
Winters, Albert
Winters, Clinton
Winters, Daniel
Winters, Fred

Life Insurance Agent

DeWitt, Hanford

Lighthouse Keeper

Barteaux, Vance
Morris, Percy

Lumberman

Allen, Imbert
Barkus, William
Barteaux, George
Bennett, Charles
Brown, Cecil
Brown, Henry
Cole, Oscar
Corbin, Harry
Corbin, Isaac
Corbin, Ralph
Fillmore, Albert
Fletcher, DeWitt
Kirkpatrick, Rupert
McCully, Robert
McCurdy, James
Morris, Albert
Morris, Clayton
Morris, George
Morris, LeMont
Morris, Leopold
Morris, Lormer
Morris, Wilfred
Rafuse, Clarence
Sanford, Hibbard
Sheffield, John
Smith, Burgess
Smith, Harold
Webster, Bradford
Webster, Frank
Webster, James
Webster, William

M.D

Fillmore, Millard

Mariner

Berry, Joseph
Blenkhorn, Ralph
Kelly, Harry
Knowlton, Lloyd
Milberry, Orin
Milberry, Robie
Milbury, Loyd
Mills, Carl
Mills, George
Morris, Archie
Morris, Duncan
Morris, Frank
Morris, James
Morris, Lorway
Morris, Roy
Morris, Vaughan
Weaver, Warren

Master Mariner
Brown, Charles
Collins, Miles
Drew, Perry
Mills, Albert
Mills, Fred
Morris, Bradford
Morris, Johnson
Knowlton, Asher
Knowlton, Silas
Mechanic

Callow, Walter

Merchant

Atkinson, Dewis

Minister

Gesner, Charles

Postmaster

Blenkhorn, Edward

Ship Carpenter
Knowlton, William
Loomer, Stanton
McLellan, Donald
Mills, Edward
Morris, Isaac
Smith, Austin
Smith, Percy
Stacey, James
Teacher

Ballantyne, Agnes
Redden, Arthur
Ward, Emma

Summary of Census Data

Occupations changed over time, as these summary charts show. There were 18 different occupations recorded in 1871. In 1891, 5 of the 1871 occupations are gone but 9 new occupations appear. In 1921 12 occupations from 1891 still exist, and 5 new ones appear.

You may wonder about some occupation fluctuations. For example, how come there are 20 mariners in 1871, 0 in 1891, and 17 in 1921? It’s likely explained by the fact four of these occupations, master mariner, mariner, seaman and ship captain, are closely related. By grouping, in the Top 5 tables, it’s clear to see how occupations connected with ships dropped considerably by the 1920s. By the 1931 census only 9 people are involved in these four occupations.

OCCUPATION187118911921
Blacksmith 321
Boot & Shoe Maker110
Carpenter006
Caulker100
Coachman010
Cooper 100
Dress Maker030
Farmer424242
Fire Insurance Agent010
Fisherman001
Joiner720
Labourer4313
Life Insurance Agent001
Lighthouse Keeper032
Lumberman0331
M.D.001
Mariner20017
Master Mariner019
Mechanic001
Merchant161
Millman020
Minister121
Postmaster111
Seaman 4130
Seamstress 100
Servant020
Ship Captain10200
Ship Carpenter21378
Shipwright 440
Spar Maker010
Teacher513
Trader100
TOTAL128142158
TOP 51871
Farmer32.31%
Mariner/Master Mariner/Seaman/Ship Captain26.15%
Ship Carpenter16.2%
Joiner5.4%
Teacher3.9%
TOTAL83.8%
TOP 51891
Farmer27.81%
Ship Carpenter24.50%
Mariner/Master Mariner/Seaman/Ship Captain22.5%
Merchant4.0%
Shipwright 2.7%
TOTAL81.5%
TOP 51921
Farmer30.2%
Lumberman22.3%
Mariner/Master Mariner/Seaman/Ship Captain18.7%
Labourer9.4%
Ship Carpenter5.8%
TOTAL86.3%

Industrial Operations, 1871

The 1871 Census states the following industrial operations in Advocate. As can be seen, there were not many people employed, and not for many months of the year. Many of the houses in Advocate had barns and it would have been necessary for a number of people to farm on a part-time basis.

OPERATIONOWNERMONTHS/ YEARMALES >16OUTPUT
Ship Building YardT. Kelly & Morris 461 ship, GF Day, 170 tons
Ship Building YardMoore & Beatty Blenkhorn2101 ship, J Williams, 350 tons
Ship YardJohn E. Suthergreen891 ship, Wesley & Seymour, 400 tons
Ship YardNathaniel Morris421 ship, now building, 40 ton
Saw Mill (water operated)Enoch & Charles Morris, Henry Beaty32Logs, New Brunswick
Saw Mill(unknown)21 water operated, logs
Blacksmith ShopAmos Blenkhorn121
Shoe Making Shop(unknown)121Shoes, 200 pairs

Harbour Masters

Library and Archives Canada lists the Harbour Masters for Advocate, who enforced harbour regulations and were paid $100 per year:

  • 1880-99: Samuel Morris
  • 1899-1906: William Mills
  • 1906-08: Elwin L. Morris
  • 1908-10: John William Knowlton
  • 1910-11: George Loomer
  • 1911-13: J. Hazen Barnes
  • 1913 (unknown end date): Dewis Atkinson

One of the harbour masters was reported for not doing his duties. When interviewed, he stated that he did not visit vessels, as he is required to do, he had not attended to his duties, and he could not state as to whether the harbour buoys were in the proper positions! It would also appear that the collector of customs collected the harbour master’s fees on his behalf, and that the harbour master allowed the collector to take 25% of the fee for his trouble. Not surprsingly, it was recommended that his appointment be cancelled.

Postmasters

Following are the people Library and Archives Canada says were employed as postmasters in East Advocate, Advocate Harbour and West Advocate – running the post office and sorting people’s mail. In 1970, the East and West Advocate postmaster jobs were consolidated in Advocate Harbour.

Advocate Harbour, 1868-Present

  • 1868-86: Nathan Morris
  • 1886-95: George A. Morris
  • 1895-97: John W. Ward
  • 1897-22: W. Edward Blenkhorn
  • 1922-28: Cecil E. Blenkhorn
  • 1928-57: Carl Rupert Mills
  • 1957-72: Douglas Hazen Smith
  • 1972: Reg Bennett
  • 1972-73: Ethel Bennett
  • 1973-85: Bill Grant
  • 1985-8: Anne Hatfield
  • 1987-88: Peggy Hill
  • 1988-2017: Shirley Hatfield
  • 2018-August 2023: Roxann Morris

    West Advocate, 1882-1970

    • 1882-87: George Judson Reid
    • 1887-10: Caleb Morris Jr.
    • 1911-21: Miss Florence E. Knowlton
    • 1921-44: Mrs. Florence Vilda Knowlton
    • 1945-70: Mrs. Rae Reid

      East Advocate, 1904-70

      • 1904-09: Stephen Knowlton
      • 1909-10: Mrs. M.A. Knowlton
      • 1910-12: Mrs. Blanch Knowlton
      • 1912-13: Mrs M.B. Atkinson
      • 1913-52: Imbert Allen
      • 1953-54: John Albert Lunn
      • 1954-63: Mrs. Aleta Lunn
      • 1963-70: Geraldine (Barkhouse) Neves

      Other Occupations

      From Belcher’s Almanack the following data was obtained.

      Registrars of Births & Deaths

      • 1923-29: Dewis, Frederick H
      • 1930: Moore, Edward C

       

       Coroner

      • 1927-30: Fillmore, Millard J.

        Marriage Licence Issuer

        • 1886-93: Ward, James H.
        • 1894 -1921: Blenkhorn, W. E.
        • 1923-29: Dewis, Frederick H.

        FEEDBACK. Have comments or questions about this chapter? Get in touch.

        7 + 9 =

        CHAPTERS
        Chapter 1: In the Beginning
        Chapter 2: Land Grants
        Chapter 3: Early Settlers
        Chapter 4: School Records
        Chapter 5: Occupations
        Chapter 6: Ships
        Chapter 7: Lighthouses and their Keepers
        Chapter 8: Churches of Advocate
        Chapter 9: Burial Sites
        Recollection I: Around the World in Sail
        Recollection II: Sketch from Miles Collins
        Full report (PDF)